Lung cancer is malignant tumour that starts in the cells of the lung and can spread, or metastasize, to other parts of the body. In India, lung cancer constitutes 6.9 per cent of all new cancer cases and 9.3 per cent of all cancer related deaths in both sexes; it is the commonest cancer and cause of cancer related to mortality in men.

What are the causes of lung cancer:

  • Smoking causes lung cancer by damaging the cells that line the lungs.
  • Exposure to second-hand smoke
  • Exposure to radon gas
  • Exposure to asbestos and other carcinogens
  • Family history of lung cancer
  • Types of lung cancer

What are the Symptoms of lung cancer:

  • Cough with blood or rusty-coloured phlegm
  • Fatigue
  • Unexplained weight loss,
  • Recurrent respiratory infections,
  • Hoarseness
  • Wheezing and shortness of breath.
  • Pain in the chest area which is dull, aching, and persistent.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Repeated respiratory infections, such as bronchitis or pneumonia,
  • Later: build-up of fluid around the lungs (pleural effusion)

How do you diagnosing lung cancer

  • X-ray
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) scan
  • Sputum tests
  • Endoscopic procedures
  • Ultrasound
  • Lung Biopsy

What is Treatment of lung cancer?


1) Wedge resection to remove a small section of lung that contains the tumour along with a margin of healthy tissue

2) Segmental resection to remove a larger portion of lung, but not an entire lobe

3) Lobectomy to remove the entire lobe of one lung

4) Pneumonectomy to remove an entire lung


Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells. One or more chemotherapy drugs may be given through a vein in your arm (intravenously) or taken orally. Chemotherapy is often used after surgery to kill any cancer cells that may remain. It may also be used before surgery to shrink cancers and make them easier to remove.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy uses high-powered energy beams from sources such as X-rays and protons to kill cancer cells. We can use beam radiation or brachytherapy. Radiation therapy can be used after

Targeted drug therapy.

  • salty-tasting skin
  • persistent coughing
  • shortness of breath
  • wheezing
  • poor weight gain in spite of excessive appetite
  • greasy, bulky stools
  • nasal polyps, or small, fleshy growths found in the nos


There is currently no cure for CF. Treatment can manage the symptoms of the disease, however, and improve quality of life. Symptoms can vary and treatment plans will be individualized.

Airway clearance

It is crucial for people with CF to get rid of mucus from their lungs to allow clear breathing and minimize lung infections.

Airway clearance techniques (ACT) can help people with CF to loosen and get rid of mucus from their lungs.

An example of ACT would be postural drainage and percussion. A therapist claps the patient’s chest and back while they sit, stand, or lie in a position that should help to free up mucus.

Inhaled medication is effective at reaching the airways and commonly used. The medication can be given by aerosol or as a metered dose inhaler. These medications can thin mucus, kill bacteria, and mobilize mucus to improve airway clearance.

Antibiotics are an important part of regular care. These can be taken orally, intravenously, or through inhalation.