Polypectomy

A polyp is a mass of tissue. The removal of a polyp is called a polypectomy. It is performed by using various instruments in the endoscopic procedures. Some polyps can develop into cancer. Most polyps are removed during a colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy. A polyp found on the left side of bowel, there is a higher chance of having polyps on the right side. A flexible sigmoidoscopy does not reach the right side of the bowel patient will need to undergo a full colonoscopy, if a polyp is found. A colonoscopy allows the entire large bowel to be examined and any further polyps to be removed.

Steps taken:

Polypectomy can be performed by excision if the polyp is external (on the skin). The colonoscope and sigmoidoscope have a fiber optic camera which helps to visualise the poly in terms of location, size, shape and the change in technique helps to remove the excess tissue. This procedure needs hospital admission in an institute with good infrastructure. For most polyps, a snare (wire lasso) is placed around the polyp base and an electric current is passed to cut through the growth mass with simultaneous cauterisation to prevent blood loss. Flat or very large polyps are generally more difficult to remove. Sometimes large flat polyps are removed by Endoscopic Mucosal Resection. For tiny polyps, special forceps (graspers) are used to hold the polyp whilst the simultaneous diathermy current destroys the tissue. A colonoscopy allows the entire large bowel to be examined and any further polyps to be removed. After the procedure, patient is observe din the recovery room. The oxygen level, blood pressure, heart rate will be monitored. After the initial effects of the anaesthesia are worn off, patient tends to be alert however intermittent drowsiness could be experienced. Patient can be discharged same day in the evening or the next day.

As with most medical procedures, there are some risks involved. Flexible sigmoidoscopy is generally the safest of all.

Patient may experience bloating and abdominal discomfort for a few hours after the procedure because air is used to inflate the bowel. This can often be relieved by passing wind at the back passage.The most significant risks of sigmoidoscopy are Perforation (or a tear of the lining of the bowel) and Bleeding

Advantages:

Most of polys are removed during the colposcopy and sigmoidoscopy procedures.

Precautions:

Patient must share all the concerns and medical conditions with the doctor prior to the procedure. Patients must inform the doctor of having any heart problems, lung conditions, diabetes, hypertension, medication history and current medicines taken and pregnancy status. Adjustments to the concomitant medications may be required before the procedure.

FAQs

Are all polyps cancerous?

No; polyps are excess tissue growth and are usually benign (noncancerous); however few polyps can grow over the year of 10 years and can turn cancerous. Coloscopy can remove polyps during the examination by making changes in the techniques.

How does one prepare for polypectomy?

Usually polypectomy are performed during colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy. The patient must undertake liquid diet three days prior to the procedure; the enema shall be administered a night before to clear the entire bowl for effective procedure.

What is the general procedure applied for removing the polyps?

Yes; these procedures are safe, effective and offer long term solution.

Are these procedures safe?

For most polyps, a snare (wire lasso) is placed around the polyp base and tightened whilst an electric current is passed. This cuts through the polyp and cauterises any blood vessels to prevent bleeding

What are forceps?

To remove small polyps, special forceps called graspers are used. They hold the polyp and then diathermy current is applied. This helps to destroy the tissue.

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