Electrophysiology is a branch of cardiology that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of heart rhythm disorders. Electrophysiologists are the cardiologists with special training in heart rhythms disorders and its management. These disorders are generally known as arrhythmias and include Atrial Fibrillation , Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome (WPW) , Heart Block , Long QT Syndrome (LQTS) , Sudden Cardiac Death (Sudden Cardiac Arrest) , Ventricular Tachycardia , Premature Ventricular Contractions and Ebstein’s Anomaly in Adults etc. These disorders must be treated and managed. There are mainly two techniques and are used based on the type of rhythm disorders. In the heart, the excessive discharge of impulses set off leading to increased pulse of varied degrees affecting only the atria, ventricles or both. An ablation technique uses an ablation catheter to eliminate rogue cells responsible for high electrical impulses and helps to restore the normal heart rhythm. The other technique consists of use of implant and cardiac devices such as pacemakers and manages the cardiac rhythm with medications. Among these, catheter ablation is the only cardiac procedure that is curative.
Advantages: Cardiac electrophysiology helps in management of cardiac disorders associated with rhythm effectively.
Is it necessary to correct the cardiac rhythm problems?
Yes; it is utmost important to diagnose the rhythm and rate disorders associated with the cardiac functions. Untreated, it can have damaging effects on the heart and can lead to life-threatening situations.
Who will refer me to electrophysiologist?
Your cardiologist who suspects that you are suffering from heart rhythm problems shall refer you to an electrophysiologist.
Can an ECG reveal cardiac rate and rhythm problems?
Yes; ECG provide the basic functioning of your heart in terms of rate, rhythm and precise details in terms of cardiac contraction and relaxation cycle.
Angioplasty is a specialised procedure performed in a Cath lab (cardiac catheterisation laboratory). Since the patients are awake and alert through the procedure, they are given medication before and during angioplasty procedure to help relax
Coronary angiography is an imaging technique or a radiological test that helps visualize the insides of the coronary arteries. It shows the exact location and severity of any plaque formation and consequent narrowing of the coronary arteries. This helps the doctor to decide on what treatment is needed.
Our heart is located in our chest cavity and is a pump made of special muscles known as myocardium. Our heart is divided into four chambers; two upper chambers known as auricles (atria) and two lower chambers are known as ventricles. They are interconnected by a passage and the opening and closing is controlled by valves.
Arteries, veins and lymphatic vessels form the vascular system of our body and vascular surgery is a specialty dealing with diseases affecting the vascular system The diseases affecting our vascular system involve the obstruction in the blood flow due to blockages (aneurysms) in the vessels.
Heart valve surgery is used to repair or replace diseased heart valves. Blood flows between different chambers of the heart must flow through a heart valve. Human heart has four valves namely Tricuspid, Pulmonary, Mitral and Aortic Valves. If a valve is not working correctly, blood flow is impaired either by leakage or by back flow.
The rhythmicity of the heart beat is based on the electric impulses. These impulses are initiated by the contraction of the cardiac muscles also known as myocardium.
Heart Surgery may be required to fix the problem with the functioning of the heart. Closed heart surgery does not require patients to be supported by a heart-lung bypass machine and the heart chambers are opened during the procedure. Some repairs are best performed using closed heart surgery.
Heart surgery in children are indicated to repair heart defects a child is born with CHD (congenital heart defects) and heart diseases a child gets after birth. The surgery is needed for the child's wellbeing. There are many kinds of heart defects ranging from minor to serious.
Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a type of surgery that improves blood flow to the heart. Surgeons use CABG to treat people who have severe coronary heart disease (CHD). Symptoms of coronary artery disease include chest pain, fatigue, palpitations, abnormal heart rhythms and shortness of breath.
Pacemaker implantation is a surgical procedure where a small electrical device called a pacemaker is implanted on the chest or abdomen. The pacemaker sends regular electrical pulses that help keep your heart beating regularly.
Heart valve surgery fixes a damaged or faulty heart valve. There are two main types of heart valve surgeries: valve repair and valve replacement. Double valve surgery is a surgery where two valves are involved. Sometimes a faulty valve can be repaired by cutting away excess tissue in the cusps of the valve and sewing the edges together.
A ventricular septal defect (VSD) is an opening or hole in the wall that separates the two lower chambers of the heart. This wall is the ventricular septum. The hole causes oxygen-rich blood to leak from the left side of the heart to the right side.
The upper chambers of the heart are divided a wall called “interatrial septum”. The defect in this wall is known as Atrial septal defect (ASD). It is a form of a congenital heart defect, the defect the baby is born with.