One of the fastest-growing illness is “cancer”. Cancer is the second most common cause of death in India also. Breast cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer and cervical cancer are the most common cancers affecting to population.
Cancer is not just one particular disease, is a collection of more than a hundred diseases; because of the growth of abnormal cells in our body. In many cancer types, there are some common characteristics. For treatment of any cancer, the type depends on the investigation, stage of cancer, age, genetic structure, health condition, etc. Early detection can help save lives.
Oncology is the study of cancer and its treatment in medical science. Cancer develops in the body and spread to various organs. The initial site of the tumour is called the primary site of cancer and further, the spread of cancer leads to the secondary manifestations of the disease. Cancer cells are abnormal cells that grow uncontrollably forming a mass called a tumour.
Normally cells are making up the human body structure and divide and grow accordingly. But any abnormal trigger or genetic predisposition can cause these cells to alter their growth. A cancerous tumour can be either benign or malignant and can grow and spread to other parts of the body. Cancer may also spread through the bloodstream to distant parts of the body. These parts may include the bones, liver, lungs, or brain. Some types of cancer do not form a tumour like leukaemia’s, lymphoma, and myeloma.
Wockhardt Hospitals, a chain of tertiary care super-specialty hospitals has more than 25 years of experience in the creation and management of Super Specialty Hospitals in India.
At Wockhardt Hospital we believe that diagnosis and management of a cancer patient do not end with the treatment of cancer, and hence it follows a well-designed patient counseling services and support system and forms part of goals in our oncology department. Our oncology team at Wockhardt Hospital uses cutting-edge technology & the latest pharmaceuticals to provide complete treatment for cancer.
At Wockhardt Hospitals, our esteemed and dedicated team of oncologists team provides both inpatient and outpatient services for patients diagnosed with cancer. This care is delivered by a multidisciplinary team of oncologists working together. Our oncologists at Wockhardt hospital along with expertise in this vast field and supported with advanced technology assist in providing the best quality patient care to our cancer patients in the administration of chemotherapy and radiation oncology.
The Department of Surgical Oncology has all-around surgical care for solid tumors comprising of Head & Neck Cancers, Breast Cancer, and Cancers of the female reproductive organs. Our qualified surgeons all have specialized fellowship training and work in a multidisciplinary setting with other specialists to provide the latest treatments and innovations in surgical cancer care.
At Wockhardt Hospitals the department on oncology treats the patient through a multidisciplinary team approach where there is a team of oncologists. A person with cancer is often treated by a team of oncologists who specialize in different areas of oncology. This team approach at our units of Wockhardt hospital includes is helpful a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. The team also includes supportive staff, nursing staff, pathology, and referrals from other specialties for accuracy and efficiency of the treatment.
Our centers at Wockhardt Hospital also provide nutrition support and other therapies to manage the side effects of cancer treatment.
Latest surgical techniques through minimally invasive surgery, stem cell transplantation, and the latest chemotherapy adjuvants form part of the care in the oncology specialty at our units in Wockhardt Hospital.
Some general signs and symptoms associated include:
- Lump or area of thickening that can be felt under the skin
- Weight changes, including unintended loss or gain
- Skin changes, such as yellowing, darkening or redness of the skin, sores that won’t heal, or changes to existing moles
- Changes in bowel or bladder habits
- Persistent cough or trouble breathing
- Difficulty swallowing
- Persistent indigestion or discomfort after eating
- Persistent, unexplained muscle or joint pain
- Persistent, unexplained fevers or night sweats
- Unexplained bleeding or bruising
Cancers have been associated with repetitive exposures or risk factors. A risk factor is anything that may increase a person’s chance of developing a disease. A risk factor does not necessarily cause the disease, but it may make the body less resistant to it. The following risk factors and mechanisms have been proposed as contributing to cancer:
- Lifestyle factors. Smoking, a high-fat diet, and working with toxic chemicals are examples of lifestyle choices that may be risk factors for some adult cancers.
- Family history, inheritance, and genetics may play an important role in some childhood cancers. It is possible for cancer of varying forms to be present more than once in a family. It is unknown in these circumstances if the disease is caused by a genetic mutation, exposure to chemicals.
- Exposures to certain viruses. Epstein-Barr virus and HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, have been linked to an increased risk of developing certain childhood cancers, such as Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Possibly, the virus alters a cell in some way. That cell then reproduces an altered cell and, eventually, these alterations become a cancer cell that reproduces more cancer cells.
- Environmental exposures. Pesticides, fertilizers, and power lines have been researched for a direct link to childhood cancers.
- Carcinomas: Rumours that are found on the surface of internal organs e.g. Prostate cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, and colorectal cancer.
- Sarcomas: Tumour that develops in fat, muscles, nerves, tendons, joints, blood or lymph vessels, cartilage, or bone.
- Leukaemia’s: cancer of the blood
- Lymphomas: Lymphoma is cancer that begins in the lymphatic system
Treatment through Surgery in Surgical Oncology where the removal of the tumour and surrounding tissue is carried. The goal of the surgical oncologist is to diagnose cancer, find its location, remove the tumour following prerequisites (after understanding whether it is operable or not) and ascertaining its spread.
1) Surgical Oncology can be used for the diagnosis of certain cancer through the biopsy procedures carried out through the surgical procedure which could be with an incisional biopsy or excisional biopsy. The importance of staging can find out through surgery which ascertains the Staging surgery is performed the size of the tumour and its spread (lymph nodes).
2) In surgical oncology removal of the tumour can be done for primary or curative treatment for the tumour.
In conventional surgery, the oncosurgeon makes large incisions through the skin, muscle, and sometimes bone. Today less-invasive techniques may speed recovery and reduce pain afterwards. Types of minimally invasive surgery like laparoscopic minimally invasive surgery, cryosurgery and laser surgery are often now implemented in oncosurgery.
In Radiation Oncology, High-energy radiation through rays are given on the tumour site to destroy cancer cells, in this type of treatment is called radiation therapy. In this type of oncology treatment specific number of treatments given over a set period of time. The goal of the radiation oncologist would be that the radiation destroys the cancer cells and slow down the growth of the tumour, without harming nearby healthy tissue. This type of therapy is given after the main treatment to target any remaining cancer cells and to shrink the tumour size.
Types of radiation therapy in radiation Oncology include:
External-beam radiation therapy is the most common type of radiation treatment. It delivers radiation from a machine located outside the body on the target site.
Internal radiation therapy is also known as brachytherapy. Radioactive material is placed into cancer itself or into the tissue surrounding it to through implants.
Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to destroy cancer cells. It works by keeping the cancer cells from growing and dividing to make more cells. The main goal of chemotherapy is to get rid of all cancer and keep it from recurring. Chemotherapy can be either standard chemotherapy, traditional chemotherapy, or cytotoxic chemotherapy. Medical Oncologists use Chemotherapy to delay or slow down cancer growth. In medical oncology chemotherapy given to the patient depends upon, dose, and treatment schedule depends on many factors such as type of cancer, size, general health of the patient, side effects
In medical oncology chemotherapy is given through:
Intravenous (IV) chemotherapy or arterial, Oral chemotherapy, Injected chemotherapy, topical chemotherapy.
Other treatments protocols in Medical Oncology:
– Hormone therapy. These treatments change the number of hormones in your body. Hormones are chemicals your body makes naturally. They help control the activity of certain cells or organs. Doctors use hormone therapy because hormone levels control several types of cancers.
– Targeted cells of gene therapy
- Make smart food choices – Cancer risk can be drastically reduced by consuming a diet that includes more fruits, vegetables, whole grains and legumes. Cut down the consumption of salty, fatty and processed food items. Non-vegetarians should strictly limit the intake of red meat
- Reduce your sugar intake – Without Sugar, your body can survive heartily but Cancer can starve to death
- Experts believe that sugar is a major cancer fuel. Cancer cells derive their power from sugar hence the risk of this deadly disease can be minimized drastically by cutting down your sugar intake.
- Stay hydrated – Drinking plenty of water and other liquids helps in diluting the concentration of cancer-causing agents in urine and flushing them out through the bladder thus reducing the risk of bladder cancer
- Steer clear of Tobacco – Tobacco when consumed in any form, doubles the risk of developing cancer. While chewing tobacco causes oral and pancreatic cancer, smoking has been associated with cancer of the lungs, bladder, cervix and kidneys
- Limit alcohol consumption – Evidence links alcohol consumption to mouth & throat cancer (larynx and pharynx), oesophageal cancer, bowel cancer (colon and rectum), liver cancer and female breast cancer.
- Protect yourself from harsh sun rays – There is no such thing as a safe tan. Any amount of exposure to the sun can subject the skin to harmful ultraviolet rays, thereby increasing the risk of skin cancer. Prevent skin cancer by shielding the sun-exposed areas of the body with proper clothing. When it’s sunny outside, wear long-sleeved outfits, a wide-brimmed cap/hat and sunglasses.
- Exercise regularly – Research indicates that approximately 30 minutes of physical activity on a daily basis can decrease your cancer risk. What’s more…it also helps in maintaining an ideal body weight which could, in turn, lower your risk of developing breast cancer, colon cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer and kidney cancer.
- Limit the use of Mobile phones – Studies have indicated a direct link between cell phone use and cancers of the brain, nerves and other tissues of the head/neck. This is because mobile phones communicate with base stations that make extensive use of RF radiation and if the intensity of this radiation is high, it can easily increase the body temperature, thereby giving rise to a wide range of health issues.
- Limit the intake of Tea and Coffee – Tea is ph value 6, while coffee is ph value 5, both of which are known to trigger acidic reactions. It can also cause major illnesses like cancer, ulcers etc. Drinking a glass of water before tea and coffee will minimize the damage.
- Go for periodic health checkups – Do not let your health take a backseat. Go for your periodic health check-ups as they can provide a better understanding of your current health status. Getting tested regularly will also help in the early detection and successful treatment of many kinds of cancer.