One of the fastest-growing illness is “cancer”. Cancer is the second most common cause of death in India also. Breast cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer and cervical cancer are the most common cancers affecting to population.
Cancer is not just one particular disease, is a collection of more than a hundred diseases; because of the growth of abnormal cells in our body. In many cancer types, there are some common characteristics. For treatment of any cancer, the type depends on the investigation, stage of cancer, age, genetic structure, health condition, etc. Early detection can help save lives.
Oncology is the study of cancer and its treatment in medical science. Cancer develops in the body and spread to various organs. The initial site of the tumour is called the primary site of cancer and further, the spread of cancer leads to the secondary manifestations of the disease. Cancer cells are abnormal cells that grow uncontrollably forming a mass called a tumour.
Normally cells are making up the human body structure and divide and grow accordingly. But any abnormal trigger or genetic predisposition can cause these cells to alter their growth. A cancerous tumour can be either benign or malignant and can grow and spread to other parts of the body. Cancer may also spread through the bloodstream to distant parts of the body. These parts may include the bones, liver, lungs, or brain. Some types of cancer do not form a tumour like leukaemia’s, lymphoma, and myeloma.
Wockhardt Hospitals, a chain of tertiary care super-specialty hospitals has more than 25 years of experience in the creation and management of Super Specialty Hospitals in India.
At Wockhardt Hospital we believe that diagnosis and management of a cancer patient do not end with the treatment of cancer, and hence it follows a well-designed patient counseling services and support system and forms part of goals in our oncology department. Our oncology team at Wockhardt Hospital uses cutting-edge technology & the latest pharmaceuticals to provide complete treatment for cancer.
At Wockhardt Hospitals, our esteemed and dedicated team of oncologists team provides both inpatient and outpatient services for patients diagnosed with cancer. This care is delivered by a multidisciplinary team of oncologists working together. Our oncologists at Wockhardt hospital along with expertise in this vast field and supported with advanced technology assist in providing the best quality patient care to our cancer patients in the administration of chemotherapy and radiation oncology.
The Department of Surgical Oncology has all-around surgical care for solid tumors comprising of Head & Neck Cancers, Breast Cancer, and Cancers of the female reproductive organs. Our qualified surgeons all have specialized fellowship training and work in a multidisciplinary setting with other specialists to provide the latest treatments and innovations in surgical cancer care.
At Wockhardt Hospitals the department on oncology treats the patient through a multidisciplinary team approach where there is a team of oncologists. A person with cancer is often treated by a team of oncologists who specialize in different areas of oncology. This team approach at our units of Wockhardt hospital includes is helpful a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. The team also includes supportive staff, nursing staff, pathology, and referrals from other specialties for accuracy and efficiency of the treatment.
Our centers at Wockhardt Hospital also provide nutrition support and other therapies to manage the side effects of cancer treatment.
Latest surgical techniques through minimally invasive surgery, stem cell transplantation, and the latest chemotherapy adjuvants form part of the care in the oncology specialty at our units in Wockhardt Hospital.
Some general signs and symptoms associated include:
- Lump or area of thickening that can be felt under the skin
- Weight changes, including unintended loss or gain
- Skin changes, such as yellowing, darkening or redness of the skin, sores that won’t heal, or changes to existing moles
- Changes in bowel or bladder habits
- Persistent cough or trouble breathing
- Difficulty swallowing
- Persistent indigestion or discomfort after eating
- Persistent, unexplained muscle or joint pain
- Persistent, unexplained fevers or night sweats
- Unexplained bleeding or bruising
Cancers have been associated with repetitive exposures or risk factors. A risk factor is anything that may increase a person’s chance of developing a disease. A risk factor does not necessarily cause the disease, but it may make the body less resistant to it. The following risk factors and mechanisms have been proposed as contributing to cancer:
- Lifestyle factors. Smoking, a high-fat diet, and working with toxic chemicals are examples of lifestyle choices that may be risk factors for some adult cancers.
- Family history, inheritance, and genetics may play an important role in some childhood cancers. It is possible for cancer of varying forms to be present more than once in a family. It is unknown in these circumstances if the disease is caused by a genetic mutation, exposure to chemicals.
- Exposures to certain viruses. Epstein-Barr virus and HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, have been linked to an increased risk of developing certain childhood cancers, such as Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Possibly, the virus alters a cell in some way. That cell then reproduces an altered cell and, eventually, these alterations become a cancer cell that reproduces more cancer cells.
- Environmental exposures. Pesticides, fertilizers, and power lines have been researched for a direct link to childhood cancers.
Head & Neck Cancer
Head and neck cancers are most commonly diagnosed in people over 50, especially men. There are many types of head and neck cancers, typically named for the part of the body where they originate. In addition, smoking and excessive alcohol use are major risk factors for developing these cancers. The treatment depends on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer and the person’s overall health. Treatment for Head & Neck Cancer includes Surgery, Radiation therapy, and Chemotherapy.
Oral cancer is a type of cancer that starts in the mucosa of the mouth. The types of oral cancer include Tongue, Gum, Cheek, Palate, and Lips cancer. The treatment for oral cancer depends on the stage of cancer, and the size and location of the tumour. Treatment options include surgery to remove the cancerous tissue. Radiation therapy may be used before or after surgery to kill cancer cells too. Chemotherapy is where drugs are used to kill cancer cells, and Targeted therapy, a newer type of cancer treatment, focuses on specific abnormalities in cancer cells.
Tongue cancer is a relatively rare disease, accounting for only about 3% of all diagnosed cases. Tongue cancer can be a life-threatening illness if not detected and treated early. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are important for the best prognosis. Treatment for tongue cancer usually involves surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy.
Thoracic cancer is a type of cancer that forms a space in your lungs and heart. When cancer starts in the thoracic cavity, it is more likely to spread to other body parts including the lungs, heart, or esophagus. Thoracic cancer is relatively rare, accounting for about 1% of all cancer cases. However, it is one of the most aggressive and deadly forms of cancer. Treatment for Thoracic Cancer includes Surgery, Radiation therapy, Immunotherapy and Chemotherapy.
Breast cancer is a disease in which malignant cells form the tissues of the breast. Almost 1 in 8 women are diagnosed with breast cancer in their lifetime and prefer to have their breasts preserved which involves a lumpectomy procedure. In some cases, if the breast or its part is removed then it can be restored through reconstruction surgery.
Breast Conservation SURGERY
Breast Conservation Surgery (BCT) is the surgery performed to remove the cancer without modifying the breast shape. The main aim of this surgery is to leave the breast’s shape and look as natural as possible. In this surgical technique some of the healthy tissues and lymph nodes are removed.
Patients who had Breast Conservation Surgery as treatment opt for breast reconstruction surgery to reconstruct and reshape the look, shape and size of breast. There are two main techniques used in breast reconstruction surgery — Implant reconstruction and Flap reconstruction.
A chemo port is installed underneath the skin to access the bloodstream. A catheter connects the port to the vein. Under the skin, the port has a septum through which medicines can be injected and blood samples can be drawn many times.
Gastrointestinal cancer is a malignant or cancerous condition of the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). GI cancer mainly affects the organs of the digestive system. It is one of the most complex types of cancer. Early detection is very crucial for the complete cure of Gastrointestinal cancer.
Bile Duct CANCER
Bile duct cancer is a rare and aggressive cancer that arises from the cells lining the bile ducts. Bile duct cancer accounts for just 2% of all primary liver cancers, and is one of the most deadly. Treatment for bile duct cancer includes Surgery, Radiation Therapy, Chemotherapy, Targeted Therapy, and Palliative Care. The right type of treatment depends on the stage of cancer and the patient’s overall health.
Colon cancer develops in the large intestine. Colon and Rectal cancer are similar types of cancer. Colon Cancer treatment includes Surgery, Radiation Therapy, Chemotherapy, Targeted Therapy, Immunotherapy, and Palliative Care. This may need more than one type of treatment depending on the stage of cancer and overall patient’s health.
Esophageal cancer is a type of cancer that affects the esophagus, the organ in your body that carries food and liquid from your mouth to your stomach. There are four stages of esophageal cancer and the treatment options depend on the severity of it. They generally include Surgery, Radiation therapy, Chemotherapy, and Targeted drug therapy often used in combination with Chemotherapy.
Most pancreatic cancer occurs in the cells that line the ducts of the pancreas. If pancreatic cancer is not treated on time then it spreads to nearby organs and blood vessels. In the advanced stage of pancreatic cancer, parts of blood vessels are removed and reconstructed.
The most common type of liver cancer is Hepatocellular Carcinoma. It occurs when liver cells develop changes or mutations in their DNA. These abnormal cells start growing rapidly forming a tumour in the liver. Liver Cancer treatment is dependent on the type and stage of cancer. Major treatments include Surgery, Radiation therapy, Chemotherapy, and Targeted drug therapy to stop or slow the growth of cancer tumour. Localised treatments such as heating cancer cells, freezing cancer cells, injecting alcohol into tumours, etc. might also be used in some cases.
Rectum Cancer arises from the lining of the rectum. It is caused by the formation of malignant cells in the tissues of the rectum. It is curable if detected at the earliest stage. Older age people are at higher risk of getting rectal cancer and it is one of the most complex types of cancer. Treatment involves a combination of Surgery, Radiation Therapy, and Chemotherapy.
It is a cancer that can affect the stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas, and ovaries. It occurs when abdominal cells divide and multiply quickly, resulting in tumour formation. Treatment for abdominal cancer involves a combination of Surgery, Radiation Therapy, and Chemotherapy.
The gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped organ that sits just below the liver. It stores bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver. Gallbladder cancer occurs when cells in the gallbladder begin to grow out of control. Chemotherapy and Radiation therapy are often combined with surgery to treat gallbladder cancer. Targeted therapy is a newer type of treatment that uses drugs to target specific mutations in cancer cells.
Peritoneal cancer is a type of cancer that affects the lining of the abdomen, known as the peritoneum. This tissue comprises epithelial cells that play an essential role in the digestive process. It is a rare but aggressive form of cancer. It can also develop from other types of cancer that have spread to the abdomen.
Laparoscopic CANCER SURGERY
Laparoscopic cancer surgery is a minimally invasive surgery used to treat various types of cancer. The surgery is performed through small incisions in the abdomen, which allows the surgeon to see and operate on the cancerous tissue. Laparoscopic surgery has many benefits over traditional open surgery, including less pain, shorter recovery time, and smaller scars.
Gynaecological cancers specifically affect a woman’s reproductive organs and are the abnormal and uncontrolled growth of cells.
Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common type of cancer among women. It occurs when cells in the ovaries grow out of control and form a tumour. Treatment for ovarian cancer may include Surgery, Radiation Therapy, and Chemotherapy.
Endometrial cancer, also known as uterine cancer, is the most common type of gynaecological cancer. Symptoms include vaginal bleeding that is not associated with your period, pelvic pain, and bloating. Treatment for uterine cancer may include Surgery, Radiation Therapy, and Chemotherapy.
Cervical cancer occurs when cells in the cervix grow out of control and form a tumour. Symptoms of cervical cancer can include vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain, and increased discharge from the vagina. Treatment for cervical cancer may include Surgery, Radiation Therapy, and Chemotherapy.
Vaginal cancer is the least common type of gynaecological cancer. It occurs when cells in the vagina grow out of control and form a tumour. Symptoms can include vaginal bleeding, pain during sexual intercourse, and changes in the appearance or smell of vaginal discharge. Treatment may include Surgery, Radiation Therapy, and Chemotherapy.
Fallopian Tube CANCER
Fallopian Tube Cancer is one of the rarest of all gynaecological cancers originiating in the fallopian tubes and can spread at other parts of the body if untreated. Treatment involves Surgery, followed by Chemotherapy depending on factors like age, stage of the cancer and the fact of desire to have children.
Bone tumours are growths that develop in the bones. While most bone tumours are noncancerous, they can still cause pain and other problems. However, some bone tumours are cancerous. These malignant tumours can spread to other parts of the body and are life-threatening. Bone tumours are usually treated with surgery. In some cases, Radiation or Chemotherapy may be used in addition to surgery.
Metastases are cancer cells that have spread from the primary tumour to other body parts. When these cancer cells settle in the bones, they are called bone metastases. They may not cause any symptoms at first, but as they grow, they can lead to pain, fractures, and problems with organ function. Bone metastases are usually treated with Surgery, Radiation Therapy, and Chemotherapy. Some newer treatments, such as Targeted Therapies and Immunotherapy, are also used to treat it.
Ewing’s sarcoma is a type of cancer that develops in the bones or soft tissues. It most commonly affects the long bones of the arms and legs but can also occur in the pelvis, ribs, and spine. It typically occurs in children and young adults and can be very aggressive. Treatment usually involves a combination of Surgery, Radiation Therapy, and Chemotherapy.
Chondrosarcoma is a type of cancer that forms in the cartilage. It is considered to be a rare form of cancer, accounting for only 1% of all bone cancers. It can occur at any age but is most commonly diagnosed in people between 40 and 60. Men are slightly more likely to develop chondrosarcoma than women. Treatment usually involves surgery.
Genitourinary cancer affects the urinary tract and genitals. There are several different types of genitourinary cancers, including prostate, bladder, and kidney cancer. Each type can be treated in a variety of ways, depending on the patient’s condition. Some common treatments for genitourinary cancers include Surgery, Radiation Therapy, and Chemotherapy.
Kidney cancer begins when some kidney cells acquire mutations in their DNA, accumulation of these abnormal cells form tumours. In adults, renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer while children develop kidney cancer known as Wilms tumour. Treatment usually involves a combination of Surgery, Cryoablation, Radiofrequency Ablation, Radiation Therapy, and Chemotherapy.
The Prostate Gland is a male reproductive organ. It is an apricot-sized, muscular gland and its main function is to secrete prostate fluid which is one of the crucial components of semen. This is one of the most common types of cancer in men. Treatment usually involves a combination of Surgery, Hormone Therapy, Radiation Therapy, and Chemotherapy.
Penile Cancer is the cancer of the Penis. It occurs when healthy cells in the penis become cancerous and begin to grow out of control forming a tumour. If not treated on time then it can spread to other parts of the body like glands, lymph nodes and other organs. Treatment includes Circumcision, Cryosurgery, Laser Therapy, Radiation Therapy, and Chemotherapy.
Urinary Bladder CANCER
Urinary Bladder Cancer develops when cells in the bladder start growing abnormally and rapidly. These abnormal cells develop mutations causing unmanageable and uncontrollable growth of cells. Finally these abnormal cells form a tumour in the urinary bladder. Treatment includes Cryosurgery, Laser Therapy, Radiation Therapy, and Chemotherapy.
Treatment through Surgery in Surgical Oncology where the removal of the tumour and surrounding tissue is carried. The goal of the surgical oncologist is to diagnose cancer, find its location, remove the tumour following prerequisites (after understanding whether it is operable or not) and ascertaining its spread.
1) Surgical Oncology can be used for the diagnosis of certain cancer through the biopsy procedures carried out through the surgical procedure which could be with an incisional biopsy or excisional biopsy. The importance of staging can find out through surgery which ascertains the Staging surgery is performed the size of the tumour and its spread (lymph nodes).
2) In surgical oncology removal of the tumour can be done for primary or curative treatment for the tumour.
In conventional surgery, the oncosurgeon makes large incisions through the skin, muscle, and sometimes bone. Today less-invasive techniques may speed recovery and reduce pain afterwards. Types of minimally invasive surgery like laparoscopic minimally invasive surgery, cryosurgery and laser surgery are often now implemented in oncosurgery.
In Radiation Oncology, High-energy radiation through rays are given on the tumour site to destroy cancer cells, in this type of treatment is called radiation therapy. In this type of oncology treatment specific number of treatments given over a set period of time. The goal of the radiation oncologist would be that the radiation destroys the cancer cells and slow down the growth of the tumour, without harming nearby healthy tissue. This type of therapy is given after the main treatment to target any remaining cancer cells and to shrink the tumour size.
Types of radiation therapy in radiation Oncology include:
External-beam radiation therapy is the most common type of radiation treatment. It delivers radiation from a machine located outside the body on the target site.
Internal radiation therapy is also known as brachytherapy. Radioactive material is placed into cancer itself or into the tissue surrounding it to through implants.
Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to destroy cancer cells. It works by keeping the cancer cells from growing and dividing to make more cells. The main goal of chemotherapy is to get rid of all cancer and keep it from recurring. Chemotherapy can be either standard chemotherapy, traditional chemotherapy, or cytotoxic chemotherapy. Medical Oncologists use Chemotherapy to delay or slow down cancer growth. In medical oncology chemotherapy given to the patient depends upon, dose, and treatment schedule depends on many factors such as type of cancer, size, general health of the patient, side effects
In medical oncology chemotherapy is given through:
Intravenous (IV) chemotherapy or arterial, Oral chemotherapy, Injected chemotherapy, topical chemotherapy.
Other treatments protocols in Medical Oncology:
– Hormone therapy. These treatments change the number of hormones in your body. Hormones are chemicals your body makes naturally. They help control the activity of certain cells or organs. Doctors use hormone therapy because hormone levels control several types of cancers.
– Targeted cells of gene therapy
- Make smart food choices – Cancer risk can be drastically reduced by consuming a diet that includes more fruits, vegetables, whole grains and legumes. Cut down the consumption of salty, fatty and processed food items. Non-vegetarians should strictly limit the intake of red meat
- Reduce your sugar intake – Without Sugar, your body can survive heartily but Cancer can starve to death
- Experts believe that sugar is a major cancer fuel. Cancer cells derive their power from sugar hence the risk of this deadly disease can be minimized drastically by cutting down your sugar intake.
- Stay hydrated – Drinking plenty of water and other liquids helps in diluting the concentration of cancer-causing agents in urine and flushing them out through the bladder thus reducing the risk of bladder cancer
- Steer clear of Tobacco – Tobacco when consumed in any form, doubles the risk of developing cancer. While chewing tobacco causes oral and pancreatic cancer, smoking has been associated with cancer of the lungs, bladder, cervix and kidneys
- Limit alcohol consumption – Evidence links alcohol consumption to mouth & throat cancer (larynx and pharynx), oesophageal cancer, bowel cancer (colon and rectum), liver cancer and female breast cancer.
- Protect yourself from harsh sun rays – There is no such thing as a safe tan. Any amount of exposure to the sun can subject the skin to harmful ultraviolet rays, thereby increasing the risk of skin cancer. Prevent skin cancer by shielding the sun-exposed areas of the body with proper clothing. When it’s sunny outside, wear long-sleeved outfits, a wide-brimmed cap/hat and sunglasses.
- Exercise regularly – Research indicates that approximately 30 minutes of physical activity on a daily basis can decrease your cancer risk. What’s more…it also helps in maintaining an ideal body weight which could, in turn, lower your risk of developing breast cancer, colon cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer and kidney cancer.
- Limit the use of Mobile phones – Studies have indicated a direct link between cell phone use and cancers of the brain, nerves and other tissues of the head/neck. This is because mobile phones communicate with base stations that make extensive use of RF radiation and if the intensity of this radiation is high, it can easily increase the body temperature, thereby giving rise to a wide range of health issues.
- Limit the intake of Tea and Coffee – Tea is ph value 6, while coffee is ph value 5, both of which are known to trigger acidic reactions. It can also cause major illnesses like cancer, ulcers etc. Drinking a glass of water before tea and coffee will minimize the damage.
- Go for periodic health checkups – Do not let your health take a backseat. Go for your periodic health check-ups as they can provide a better understanding of your current health status. Getting tested regularly will also help in the early detection and successful treatment of many kinds of cancer.